What should you known about the routine
and non-standard semen analyses?
Check out the norms and see how to interpret your result.


Do you want to know more?
Ask our expert an question.


The most common questions asked by men
who plan to become fathers.


Can I really improve the quality of my sperm through supplementation?

Expert’s response:
A balanced diet has a great influence on the quality of semen. What we eat constitutes a crucial factor determining our health – also in terms of reproduction and fertility. A significant role in the process of planning to have a baby is played by supplementation. By replenishing our deficits, we can improve the quality of sperm, e.g. the volume of semen, the number of spermatozoa capable of fertilising the egg cell. Proper supplementation also influences the quality of the genetic material, which is transferred by sperm cells. The quality of this material determines, amongst others, the course of future pregnancy and the health of the baby.

What are the most frequent problems related to the loss of semen quality?

Expert’s response:
The most common problems include:

ASPERMIA – inability to either form or ejaculate semen;
ASTHENOZOOSPERMIA – reduced number of spermatozoa with progressive motion;
AZOOSPERMIA – a lack of spermatozoa in the ejaculate;
OLIGOASTHENOZOOSPERMIA – a condition when the number of spermatozoa (or their concentration) in the ejaculate and the number of spermatozoa with progressive motion is too low;
OLIGOASTHENOTERATOZOOSPERMIA – a condition when the number of spermatozoa (or their concentration) in the ejaculate as well as the number of spermatozoa with progressive motion and the number of morphologically normal spermatozoa is too low;
OLIGOTERATOZOOSPERMIA – a condition when the number of spermatozoa (or their concentration) in the ejaculate and the number of spermatozoa with unremarkable morphology is too low;
OLIGOZOOSPERMIA – a condition when the number of spermatozoa (or their concentration) in the ejaculate is too low;
TERATOZOOSPERMIA – a condition when the number of spermatozoa with a completely proper structure is too low;
CRYPTOZOOSPERMIA – presence of single spermatozoa in the ejaculate, which are not visible until the semen is centrifuged;
HAEMATOSPERMIA (HAEMOSPERMIA) – presence of erythrocytes in the ejaculate;
LEUKOSPERMIA (LEUKOCYTOSPERMIA, PYOSPERMIA) – an increased number of leukocytes in the ejaculate;
NECROZOOSPERMIA – a very low number of live sperm cells in the ejaculate or a complete lack of live sperm cells.

Can I use Supramen® while preparing for the in-vitro fertilisation procedure?

Expert’s response:
Yes. Both in Poland and many other countries, the norm is that specialists recommend that men supplement themselves – prior to the in-vitro fertilisation procedure – with a suitable set of vitamins and minerals. Supramen® contains ingredients that are highly effective in preparing the human body for the assisted reproductive technology procedures, such as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), which has been confirmed in numerous clinical trials.

Semen analysis

What are the different types of semen analysis?

General analysis

General semen analysis includes the following types of assessment:

  • macroscopic: volume, viscosity, pH, colour, odour
  • microscopic: sperm count, vitality, integrity of the plasmatic sperm membrane and sperm motility

Analysis of spermatozoid chromatin fragmentation

The analysis of spermatozoid DNA fragmentation is based on the SCD (Sperm Chromatin Dispersion) test. As a result of the SCD test, spermatozoa with a proper chromatin structure exhibit a characteristic halo, which is not present in spermatozoa with damaged chromatin. Further analysis is carried out automatically by means of a system for computer-aided semen analysis (SCA) – the result of the analysis is the percentage of proper spermatozoa (with a halo). The results of the SCD method are comparable to those obtained by means of the SCSA (Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay).

Reduced numbers of spermatozoa with a proper chromatin structure may be an indication for using the IMSI method (Intracytoplasmic Morphologically Selected Sperm Injection) in the in-vitro fertilisation procedure.

ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES – the MAR test (Mixed Antiglobulin Reaction)


Antisperm antibodies may be produced by both women (in this case, they are detected in the cervical mucus and blood) and men (present in the blood and semen). The production of antisperm antibodies is facilitated by inflammatory processes in the genital organs, obstruction of the spermatic ducts, testicular injuries, frequent testicular biopsies and varicocele. The presence of antisperm antibodies in the semen may result in reduced spermatozoa motility and their agglutination, hinder sperm interaction with the egg cell and even lead to total infertility.

In order to detect antisperm antibodies, IgG-coated latex particles are added to a semen sample. Binding of spermatozoa with the particles indicates the presence of antisperm antibodies and may be an indication for assisted reproductive technology.

HBA (Hyaluronan Binding Assay) – a test verifying sperm-hyaluronan binding


Sperm becomes capable of binding with hyaluronan at the final stages of sperm maturation. This is the indicator of proper completion of spermiogenesis. Hyaluronic acid is present in the transparent membrane of the oocyte and in the cellular connections around the oocyte. The potential to effectively bind with hyaluronic acid demonstrates the ability of sperm to permeate through egg cell membranes and hence, indirectly, to fertilise the eggs.
Therefore, the diagnostic HBA test makes it possible to determine the percentage of mature and functional spermatozoa in the ejaculate. A lowered value of the test result may provide an explanation for previous unsuccessful fertilisation attempts and facilitate further therapeutic strategies.

What are the current norms for semen analysis results?

The norms defining semen quality have undergone numerous modifications over the years. The first set of norms for the semen was developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1980. Further changes were introduced in 1999 and then in 2010.

The following are the current standards according to the WHO:

Expert’s advice


We would also like to encourage you to take advantage of a medical consultation with our expert, who will try to answer all your questions.